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Latest student reviews. Sumeet P. Geneva Business School - Geneva. CGE project participants combine research-based practices with an educator's passion for sharing skillful expertise overseas. Every year, CGE assists hundreds of faculty members and thousands of students to participate in CGE-related overseas study, service and teaching programs that include:. CGE member universities and colleges have become a gateway to the world for American educators and professionals who provide access to educational venues in countries desiring quality education, global stability, professional and economic development and civil societies.
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Obviously, the courses were put forward for several reasons, including sincere faculty devotion to the topics and a desire to capture enrollments.
- Das Gesundheitskonzept von Aaron Antonowsky. Zur möglichen Bedeutung des Koheränzgefühls bei der Entstehung des Burnout-Syndroms in der Altenpflege (German Edition);
- First Aid: A Pocket Guide: Quick Information for Mountaineering and Backcountry Use.
- THE JYNX.
Nonetheless, the proposals indicated some real confusion about what global education entails, and how it requires some readjustments from standard liberal education fare. A good bit of liberal education in the United States, particularly on the humanities side of the house, has been devoted to exposing students to the special beauties and intricacies of a Western canon.
Some liberal education exemplars, particularly in certain small-college settings, continue to tout this goal, seeking to define the educated student in terms of the fullest possible exposure to Western history and culture. But again, however desirable it may be, this is simply not a global goal. It does not explicitly emphasize either the data or the habits of mind that serve a global vision. In theory, liberal education staples that highlight purely Western classics might still be offered along with a global program. Yet apart from a certain degree of tension in principle, the real issue here concerns the amount of time available in a general education program.
Is there space for an engineering or business student to fulfill the global goals and still take a classic course in Western civilization or philosophy? It is not often going to be possible to resolve the Western-global conundrum by simply insisting that students do both. Some genuine reorientation is essential. Other curricular issues are less stark. Global education places a new premium on language training, with important non-Western offerings added to the mix and, ideally, with renewed attention to precollegiate foreign language exposure.
As was true even with Western languages, questions remain about how much to require and how basic language courses can serve the purposes of both training and liberal education. The cultural concomitants of, say, an introductory sequence in Chinese or Arabic might moderate this familiar tension to some extent.
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In principle, global education demands attention from both the social sciences and the humanities. The most common response to the global invocation emphasizes training in cultural diversity—exposure to at least one culture different from one's own. But there is also an urgent need for work on global systems—the development and operation of contemporary political and economic contacts that powerfully shape the world. This dual focus on the cultural and the systemic is not at all incompatible with the goals of liberal education, which are also multidisciplinary.
But it does make additional claims on course time and, therefore, raises the question of how much conventional general education material must be cleared away or restructured. Obviously, the basic point is that some reorientation of the most familiar definitions of liberal education is essential if the goals of global education are to be met.
There are conflicts over the time available for necessary courses as well as, to some extent, over basic purposes. Global education is not simply liberal education business as usual, and for some faculty members the choices will not be easy.
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In the most fundamental sense, however, a fuller turn to global education amply fulfills classic goals of liberal education. The necessary innovations do not strike at the liberal core. The key to reconciliation involves asking proponents of global education to define their own basic learning outcomes. Global education, even at an introductory general education level, desirably exposes students to a considerable range of data. One hopes that the educated American student will know something about Islam, something about the globalization of science, something about global disease threats and responses, something about the economic relationship between the United States and China, something about the complex relationship between the European Union and globalization—and this list can easily be expanded.
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The coverage list is where the tensions with a Western-centered definition of what every educated person should know emerge most strongly. But beneath such lists, and ultimately demanding far more concerted attention, the global education agenda pushes for two fundamental habits of mind that are readily compatible with any but the most hidebound understanding of the desired outcomes of a liberal education. First, the globally educated student should gain experience and skill in comparing different cultures and systems. This is, after all, the approach that ultimately undergirds the common insistence on exposure to international cultural diversity.
Teaching students to expect to need to compare rather than to assume a universality for their own experiences and values , helping them learn how to do it, and encouraging a comparative openness and orientation that can last beyond the classroom—all of this is fundamental to the kind of analysis living in a global environment requires. It involves the need to encounter diversity, but it also encourages recognition of unexpected, sometimes beneath-the-surface similarities; comparison cuts two ways, and undue emphasis simply on differences can miss the mark.
Second, the globally educated student should gain experience and skill in dealing with relationships between the local and the global. The phrase, of course, is familiar enough, but the category needs further attention pedagogically; it has been less thoroughly probed than the injunction to learn to compare. With comparison we have some experience not just in presenting relevant materials, but in actually accelerating the process by which students move from an initial temptation simply to juxtapose two cases, to genuine and active comparative analysis; we are not so far along in identifying the learning processes associated with an evaluation of local-global causations.
But it is obviously true that human lives are powerfully shaped by interactions between local and global forces, and that both humanities and social science disciplines can promote the necessary analysis by generating some range of historical and contemporary case studies. Again, the ultimate goal is to prepare students to apply classroom experience to local-global combinations, whose existence we can confidently predict but whose specifics await the future.
Neither of these global habits of mind emerges predictably from a typical liberal education outcomes list, but both are fully compatible with such lists. Both, after all, promote the capacity to identify and evaluate student assumptions; both encourage critical thinking.
One of the strengths of the global approach, in fact, is that it offers new vantage points for students' exploration of their own values and their own society, as part of the broader global understanding. Though in fact it can be a demanding exercise, helping students see how others view American behaviors and institutions—to understand, not necessarily to accept the contrasts with homegrown assessments—can be one of the most interesting applications of a comparative, local-global approach.
In sum, it is both possible and desirable to define liberal education in "global" terms. Defining a global liberal education extends the purposes of liberal education itself, and provides additional rationale at a time of some real uncertainty about commitments to the enterprise.
It changes the learning outcomes list, but it reinforces the most essential basics. It offers a shared agenda for further pedagogical work and best-practice reports, as we work on to help students develop fundamental cognitive skills. The liberal-global combination does require real, if bounded, readjustments, however, and this means some additional debate and challenge.
But it is well worth the effort to prepare students to think more constructively about global issues, and simply to think better in the process. Proponents of global education will benefit from a focus on the core learning outcomes they should be working toward, and their essentially liberal qualities, while proponents of liberal education will benefit from a fuller recognition of the global framework within which our students need to operate. Peter N. Stearns is provost at George Mason University. This article was adapted from a presentation at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities.
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