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- The Personal Cost of Jutland!
- Mediterranean campaign of 1798;
- Troubled waters!
He was detained at the police bridewell and was then repatriated to Jamaica aboard the SS Santille in July The vessel was the subject of much unrest on the voyage to the West Indies. See Jenkinson , Black , 50—57, for a discussion of the sailors unions' stance on black colonial workers. In these mills, linseed and cotton seed were crushed, heated and then pressed to extract the oil, and the residual slabs of cake were sold as cattle food. He worked in Liverpool from to , when he returned to Sierra Leone accompanied by his white British wife Maisie to take up church and teaching appointments.
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Journal homepage. Jacqueline Jenkinson Correspondence j. Pages Published online: 03 Aug Fryer, Staying Power , — Lorimer, Colour, Class and the Victorians , 12— Rose, Which People's War?
Paul, Whitewashing Britain , xii. Jenkinson, Black , 1, Killingray, ed. African Telegraph 3 July—Aug. The Times , 13 June , 5. British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act, , ch. Manual of Military Law , Smith, Jamaican Volunteers , Killingray, Africans in Britain , The Times , 1 July , 4.
Troubled Waters - Echo Bazaar
Evening Times Glasgow , 19 June , 1. South Wales Argus , 5 July , 4. Law and Henfrey, History of Race and Racism , Liverpool Echo , 6 June , 5. Worse was to come. Given their complete isolation from events outside their compartment, it is unlikely they would have been aware of the catastrophe overtaking their vessel until it was far too late.
Jutland was the single costliest naval battle of the First World War. On returning to port, each side attempted to take stock of what had proved a highly confusing action. In terms of losses inflicted, the Germans had grounds for claiming a tactical victory. Fourteen British ships had been sunk and 26 damaged, compared to eleven sunk and 30 damaged on the German side. Total British casualties — including captured survivors — came to 6, compared to 3, German.
Strategically, the German effort to critically weaken the Grand Fleet without suffering serious loss to itself had proved a failure. In any case, with German attention diverted by the Russian Brusilov offensive a week later and British by the Somme offensive in July, Jutland quickly disappeared from the headlines. Those who had lost their menfolk had not only to deal with the immense personal grief that attends such loss but also, in many cases, a financially uncertain future.
The Fund certainly proved a godsend to the desperate Hannah Burns, who applied to it for help in December , very shortly after the birth of her fourth child, David. Burns has written to say that she is in great trouble and in need of help. She suffers from a weak heart and has had no assistance from anywhere. Despite the receipt of immediate assistance, the lot of the Burns family did not improve.
Within another month James Burns was very ill with consumption tuberculosis. The Fund arranged for the children to go to the Aberlour Orphanage in Scotland, a well-known charitable institution with an emphasis on educating its young charges. Upon completion, an annual 39 million tonnes of untreated sewage will be captured and thus prevented from overflowing into the Thames.
Instead, it will be channelled into the deep tunnel, which acts as a vast temporary storage tank. In many cases, instability of older, rigid iron piping can be related to the composition of the surrounding London clay; specifically, high montmorillonite is known to cause ground heave large volume changes in response to changes in moisture.
This contributes to the million litres of water currently lost daily in the Thames Water catchment area — the greatest loss the UK. London is a thirsty city: the average annual precipitation of mm is lower than Rome, Dallas, or even Istanbul!
Royal Naval Biography/Webley Parry, William Henry
Thames Water predicts that by , the regional supply-demand deficit will have more than doubled relative to current estimates. Construction of the Thames Water Ring Main in the early s greatly improved storage and transmission of potable water from water treatment works across London, but was a process plagued with groundwater-related difficulties.
Two workers were killed during excavation of a pump-out shaft at Stoke Newington; operations unexpectedly struck the fully saturated Thanet Sands, strata with an abundance of glauconite, which oxides on contact with air. The rapid removal of oxygen by the glauconite in such a confined space ultimately asphyxiated the two workers. Zealous water abstraction from the early 19th Century led to a fall in groundwater, increasing the strength of the London Clay, but also resulting in settlement of both the ground surface and of buried tunnels. Rapid decreases in the level of the water table beneath London gained national recognition following the widely publicised settlement of the Bank of England by as much as 0.
Increased abstraction is now needed in some areas, as old tunnels are threatened by the slow upward leakage of water through the impermeable clay layer under high pressures. This can lead to an increase in porewater pressure, and a loss of shear strength and bearing capacity — in other words, flooding in unsealed tunnels - and instability in those that are fully sealed, resulting from high uplift pressures. Recent increases in abstraction under the so-called General Aquifer Research Development and Investigation Team — GARDIT — strategy have largely established a dynamic equilibrium and brought rising groundwater levels under control.
The danger of striking a subterranean river or saturated sand stratum when tunnelling is one major hazard brought into focus by the construction of the early cut-and-cover London Underground lines. During construction of the Jubilee line extension in , the water level was found to be just three metres below ground level between Westminster and Green Park stations. Construction of the Victoria Line was delayed at Green Park when the tunnel boring machine TBM left the London clay to hit the gravel deposits of the former Tyburn Valley, which collapsed and infilled a large section of the tunnel.
Stepping back to April , building of the Metropolitan Line destabilised the weak alluvial subsoil in Blackfriars to the extent that the Fleet Sewer burst, significantly delaying construction. The crown of the arch of the mighty Fleet Sewer had broken. In June , Old Street tube station was shut due to flooding.
As a result the tunnel lining had become corroded to such an extent as to allow ingress of water. In other areas, engineers have striven to avoid permeable strata. However, careful monitoring and innovative management can bear fruitful results.
The progressive accumulation of heat over the last century has created a pressing need to cool trains and stations. At Victoria hot air is extracted and run across cold water drawn from the subterranean River Tyburn; a heat exchange takes place before the newly cool air is pumped back into the deep-level Tube station. For a very small environmental impact, this limited trial successfully removes around 60kW of heat from the station. Left: Replacement of old, cast iron water pipes with plastic piping in the London Clay, Southwark.
So where is the changing relationship between London and its water resources leading? Still, problems and ignorance persist. However, management of the aquifer has historically been problematic. Saline intrusions and high residency times in the syncline beneath central London have rendered groundwater susceptible to pollution.
The boarding of U-559 changed the war – now both sides tell their story
London has only just arrived at a tentative mutual understanding with the chalk aquifer and groundwater, predicated upon past lessons learnt from decades of mismanagement. The future lies in sustainability. Greater London Authority, London: City Hall.
Related My Royal Navy Letters: Through Calm and Troubled Waters
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