Waidson Richmond Surrey: Alma Classics, , Graham Allen97 [I]t is quite possible that the major mechanisms of power have been accompanied by ideological productions. Which theoretical-political avant garde do you want to enthrone in order to isolate it from all the discontinuous forms of knowledge that circulate about it? These people, who are to this day not recognized as a 97 Graham Allen, Intertextuality, London: Routledge, , 1. This calls for a theoretical framework that combines notions of power structures, and their subversion on a societal as well as an individual level, with notions of intertextuality.
It is based on a reactivation of local knowledges — of minor knowledges, as Deleuze might call them — in opposition to the scientific hierarchisation of knowledges and the effects intrinsic to their power. Intertextuality The term intertextuality was coined by Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic and psychoanalyst Julia Kristeva in her writings introducing the work of Russian philosopher, literary critic and semiotician Mikhail Bakthin to French literary theorists in the nineteen sixties.
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However, the origin of intertextuality, Graham Allen underscores in his extensive research on intertextuality, can be traced back to the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. All utterances are responses and are addressed to specific addressees. This manifesto enhances the role of Allen, Intertextuality, Bakhtin and P. Medvedev, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, trans.
Matejka and I. Feminist critics have responded in different ways to the loss of authority. Miller responds to the different voices by suggesting a postmodern authorial signature. She echoes and plays with texts, as well as with well-established genres and employs literary techniques and devices, such as historical, international, socio-cultural and literary allusions to convey her political message.
Mariella Mehr Bern: Zytglogge, , Studies of the novel typically focus entirely on the protagonist.
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There are, however, good reasons, as I will show, to include the figure of Armin Lacher in the thematic analysis and to start the interpretation with this character rather than with the protagonist. In a next step I engage in a discussion of violence.
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In particular, I explore the interconnections between indirect, i. The narrative illustrates how violence 38 begets violence and highlights a new form of violence. Today, historians and social scientists believe the Yenish to be descendants of the heterogeneous group of the marginalized vagrant poor, mainly of central Europe. One year later, Mehr began her journalistic work for several Swiss newspapers and magazines, in particular for the Wochenzeitung WOZ , the Berner Zeitung, and the Tagesanzeiger Magazin.
Die Kraft aus Wut und Schmerz — Zum In earlier years, researchers claimed the Yenish to be an autonomous ethnic group, a sub-tribe of the Roma.
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So did, for example Huonker, Fahrendes Volk — verfolgt und verfemt. Her first publications, a book of poetry, was followed by a poetry prose letter-documentation, a drama, a collection of texts, and a second novel. Since its beginnings in , the brand has expanded to include a travel agency, continuing education, language schools, gasoline stations, a bank, an insurance company, a weekly magazine and from the newspaper Die TAT.
The declared goal was the extinction of itinerancy. As hard as this may sound, he has to tear the family apart. There is no other way. Furthermore, this expression is influenced by ideologies ranging from romantic notions to social-Darwinist and racial classifications. Ein Versuch zur Sesshaftmachung von Kindern des fahrenden Volkes. They suffered humiliation, maltreatment, stigmatization and racism. Some were forced to undergo electroshock treatment and sterilization. The author Mariella Mehr was herself a ward of the Pro Juventute project.
Werk von M. Daskind is the first book of a trilogy, which extensively explores the conditions of these minorities and the society to which they belong. Ellenberger, e-mail message to author, February 28, In addition, the publishing house Ullstein is unable to give out that information due to data protection laws. Christiane Stahl, e-mail message to author, March 4, Reception in the Context of the Trilogy Initially, Daskind was understood and read by critics as a text dealing with child abuse and the bigotry and mendacity that engenders such circumstances.
This reading of Daskind changed in when Angeklagt was published, and to a lesser degree already in with the publication of Brandzauber.
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However, despite the new interpretations in magazines and newspapers, the majority of academic investigations which include the novel Daskind, focused, like most of the pre-trilogy critics, on victimization. This interpretation has found its way into other reviews. So opines, for example, Hartmut T. Literary and cultural historian Carmel Finnan concluded, for example, in The Roles of the Romanies: …Mehr gives literary expression to the unarticulated suffering of victims, describing events, emotions, impressions from the perspective of those persecuted.
University of Peruga, Ellenberger, e-mail message to author, January 15, The earliest known scholarly work about Mehr is done by Christine Mergozzi. However, her dissertation does not include Daskind. University of California, Elizabeth C.
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Awards, Recognition, Reprints and Translations Mehr received several literary prizes and awards for Daskind, most notably, the prestigious prize of the Schiller-Stiftung in Steven R. Lamioche is currently out of print. Seven years later, in , Labambina, the Italian translation, was published by the Italian publishing house Effigie.
The Italian copy is still available. Moreover, she has written three theater pieces, two pieces for music and collaborated on a movie-script. Anna Ruchat Milano: Effigie Edizioni, To this Day In , H. It offered until up-to-date information in German, French, Italian and English, and is an excellent tool for reaching a broader audience. The author has a strong presence on the World Wide Web. In addition to countless hits linking websites to her name, there are also several uploaded videos on YouTube documenting her work and life.
In , just a few years after the website was launched, Mehr was the 37th Max Kade writer-in-residence at Oberlin College in Ohio. In , after many years of supporting her work as a web master, H. Ellenberger stepped back. Mariella Mehr plans to manage the website herself but is currently dealing with serious health issues. In January , the drama group Cantadoras debuted a theatrical version of the novel at the Theater Rampe in Stuttgart. Daskind is full of abusive characters.
The villagers are, in fact, interconnected through an intricate and mostly covert network of abuse. Nonetheless, analyses investigating Daskind through the lens of violence focus exclusively on the young protagonist. Since I read Daskind as a text recovering the subjugated knowledges, i.
In the case of Armin, the village exploits him as a work force and keeps him marginalized, even as an adult. Her background story is revealed through flashbacks. The narrator describes, with shocking imagery, the consequences of how pressure, self-centeredness, the desire for status and revenge, as well as frustration, violence and abuse engendered by unhappy lives, based on blind obedience to Church and authority, are acted out downwards, towards those with less power. The main part of the story takes place in a nameless, generic and outwardly idyllic village in which men raise and breed roses, women have their own clubs and children and youth are exposed to imported cultural events, such as a foot artist and a taxidermied whale.
The compound Daskind, which is made up of an article and a noun, is not a name as some scholars suggest. On the contrary, the Critics have so far only recognized the protagonist as an inverted Kaspar Hauser story. John B. Thompson, trans. Michel Foucault argues similar. New York: Vintage Books, ,ff. The information about the sexual abuse is woven with great caution into the text throughout the entire novel by revealing bits and pieces that only hint at sexual assault but assembled together like a jigsaw puzzle, attest to the repeated violation.
The first piece is given on page one and by the end of the chapter the sexual abuse is for the first time confirmed. Mehr seeks to minimize the abuse that could occur through the act of writing and reading by employing the literary technique of fragmentation. Ein Knecht. A farmhand. This disclosure, in combination with the continuously mounting evidence that Armin Lacher sexually abuses the young protagonist almost nightly, poses a conundrum for readers early in the text. In jenen Zeiten nahm man es noch nicht so genau mit der Schule, schon gar nicht beim Sohn eines Landfahrers, von dem niemand wusste, woher er kam und wem er den Balg zu verdanken hatte, den er auf seinen Wanderungen mit sich schleppte.
In those days school was not yet taken too seriously, especially not when it came to the son of a Traveler of whom nobody knew where he came from and to whom he owned that bantling, which he schlepped with him on his wanderings. Jahrhunderts, ed. Michael Zimmermann Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, Wulf D.
University of Bern, All Travelers were to be assimilated.
Travelers were to leave Switzerland. Consequently, all homeless Travelers were arrested. Some, namely local and indigenous Travelers, who are today recognized as the Yenish people, received Swiss citizenship and were allocated to a canton that in turn assigned them to different communities. Although less and less applied, the law was in some cases still utilized in the twentieth century.
At times, I also employ the German terms. This contract can contain stipulations such as repayment of the costs of housing, transportation, training and other expenses. There is evidence that there are even today cases were foster children are taken in to exploit their work force. For the short version of the act see: Anti-Slavery Society, last modified , accessed July 16, , www. Equally, appropriate care and employment were found for adults and the elderly of the upper classes. Many rural communities did not have the means to care for their destitute citizens. Those talk about foster children, who were given to private people, who were in turn compensated for taking the children in.
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